Hyperglycemia_2 Facts Part 3 - All You Want to Know
Hyperglycemia_2 is what we have been discussing and this part 3 is the last one of the series. Part 1 dealt with the definition, symptoms, causes, complications, prevention and when to book a visit to the doctor while part 2 included the home treatment plan and the preparations for the doctor's visit plus the questions to ask. Now on we go to Part 3.
There are two emergency complications to watch for when the blood glucose is high for a long period of time:
- When the blood sugar is high and more than 33 mmol/L (600 mg/dL) and is not treated, it can lead to diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome and then coma and dehydration that is life-threatening.
- When there is too little insulin and sugar can't enter the cells for energy, the blood glucose goes up and breaks down fat which produces ketones, the excess amount of which goes to the blood and then to the urine. This can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, and then to coma which is life-threatening.
When there is too little insulin and sugar can't enter the cells for energy, the blood glucose goes up and breaks down fat which produces ketones, the excess amount of which goes to the blood and then to the urine. This can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, and then to coma which is life-threatening.
What are the Tests and Diagnosis?
The physician sets the targeted level for the blood glucose. Here are they usually:
- At least for 8 hours of fasting- between 5 and 7 mmol/L (between 90 and 130 mg/dL)
- Before meals - between 4 and 7 mmol/L (between 70 and 130 mg/dL)
- One or two hours after meals - lower than 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL)
There will be variations depending on whether there's pregnancy, complications, and for older people.
Monitoring the Blood Glucose at Home:
The best way to determine whether the treatment plan is working is through monitoring it at home. Check the blood glucose level one or two hours after meals or as frequently as the doctor recommends. Check it also if there are symptoms of severe hyperglycemia_2 or if the level is 13 mmol/L (240 mg/dL) or more which in this case the urine should be tested for ketones. There are ketones test kits available over the counter at the drug stores. If this test is positive you will need your doctor to help you lower the blood glucose level.
A1C Test (Glycated Hemoglobin)
The doctor may do an A1C test during the appointment. This test will indicate the average blood glucose level during the past two to three months. The treatment plan is working if the result of this test is 7% or less. If it is higher, the doctor may recommend a change in the treatment strategy. How well is the management working will determine how many times this test is done but usually it is between two and four times a year.
What is the Emergency Treatment for Hyperglycemia_2 that is Severe?
You may have to be hospitalized if you have symptoms of diabetic hypersomolar syndrome and diabetic ketoacidosis. Here's what they will do for you:
- Electrolyte replacement is necessary when the levels of electrolytes or minerals in the blood are lowered due to lack of insulin. To keep the muscles, heart and nerve cells keep working properly you will receive electolytes through the veins.
- Fluid replacement will also be administered intravenously (through the vein) or orally, until the dehydration due to frequent urination is corrected. This process will also dilute the extra glucose in the blood.
- Insulin therapy will help reverse the course of action that leads to the formation of ketones in the blood. You will receive the insulin intravenously.
How do we Prevent Hyperglycemia_2 from Happening?
- Monitor the blood glucose level and record the results several times a day or a week depending on the treatment plan. This is the only way to check whether the blood glucose level stays within the target range.
- Take the medications as prescribed by the doctor.
- Follow the meal plan by consistently adhering to the amount of food and time of day for the meals because this should be in balance with the insulin in the body.
- Adjust the medication if there is a change in the physical activity depending of course on the results of the blood glucose monitoring.
There you have everything you want to know and need when dealing with this issue. Part 2 had some prevention techniques but I wanted to emphasize this so I had to put them up again. And now that is all the story we have on hyperglycemia_2.
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